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Hey! Do you know that the No.1 Post Utme Exams Success Tools are Past Questions and Answers? is a rhetorical question.Ā
We are glad to inform you that we now have complete and uptodate past questions for download in PDF format. So, if you want to gain admission into any institution in Nigeria then get our uptodate Past Questions and Answers to prepare for the exams.Ā
Past Question is a past subject or Past Exams Question papers, but do you know that almost 70% of students have failed their exams all because of this same Past Questions and answers? and also that this Past Question and answers Help many to succeed in their exams through with Flying Colours? Past Question varies,Ā I hope you are not confused, let me make it a little bit clear to your understandingā¦..the internet is one of the best places to get success, it is also the best place to achieve failure.
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Reasons You Should Download this Past Question
 It will give you an idea ofĀ Ā Post UTMEĀ syllabus.Ā Hence, it will serve as your study guide.
 It will give you a clear knowledge of likely repeatable questions at Post UTME Screening this year.
 Will help boost your Post UTME preparation efforts. Use them toĀ refresh your memoryĀ on subjects/topics you already know and subjects/topics you did not know very well enough. from dailycampusgist.com, It will also point to you the areas you ought to cover and/or what you donāt know at all in a subjects/topics.
 It will expose you to theĀ nature and type of questionsĀ you should expect, and how the questions are usually set at Post UTME Screening. With this, you can easily predictĀ what to expectĀ and how to channel your efforts appropriately.
 The past questions will give you an idea of the Post UTMEĀ Subject Combinations.
 It will help you to take note of theĀ past questions which usuallyĀ repeatĀ themselves in subsequent yearsā¦ā¦..
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Tips for Post UTME Exams PreparationsFrom NG Student’s Portal
In preparing for your post utme exams work through as many past examination papers as you can. Remember, your success in the utme exam will depend on how much extra time you put into preparing.
Top 10 post utme study tips

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Samples of some Institutes Past Question
ENGLISH LANGUAGE SECTION
From the words or group of words lettered A to D, choose the word or group of words which best completes each of the following sentences.
1 When the little girl hurt herself she āā her mother for sympathy.
(a) looked up (b) forced (c) appealed for (d) turned to
2 The āāāāā applauded the lecturer. (a) crowd (b) congregation (c) spectator (d) audience
3 The new Eko Bridge in Lagos should help to greatly ease the terrible trafficāāāā(a) compression (b) conversions (c) congestion (d) convergence
4 Able and āāāā, he eventually reaped his reward.
(a) awkward (b) industrial (c) officious (d) industrious
5 The lecturer felt that it would beāāāāāā to let women compete for posts normally filled by men. (a) inadequate (b) impolite (c)inferior (d) in appropriate D From the list of words or group of words lettered A to D below
each of the following sentences, choose the word or group of words which is nearest in meaning to the underlined expression as it is used in the sentences.
6 The discussion became animated. (a) robust (b) unruly (c) intellectual (d) lively
7 John did four years in the University without obtaining his degree, and his scholarship had to be withdraw (a) recovered (b) postponed (c) cancelled (d) reallocated C
8 The driver failed to obey the speedlimit regulations in the college compound, and was summarily
dismissed. (a) answer (b) understand (c) notice (d) observe D
9 The rebels were forced to surrender. (a) give off (b) give out (c) give in (d) give way C
10 Prospective students for admission must be eligible. (a) clever (b) fluent (c) smart (d) qualified D
Read the following passage and answer the seven questions that follow.
In the United States, where we have more land than people, it is not at all difficult for persons in good health to make money. In this comparatively new field there are so many avenues of success open, so many vocations which are not crowded, that any person of either sex who is willing, at least for the time being, to engage in any respectable occupation that offers, may find lucrative employment.
Those who really desire to attain an independence, have only to set their minds upon it, and adopt the proper means, as they do in regard to any other object which they wish to accomplish, and the thing is easily done. But however easy it may be found to make money, I have no doubt many of my hearers will agree it is the most difficult thing in the world to keep it. The road to wealth is, as Dr. Franklin truly says, āas plain as the road to the mill.ā It consists simply in expending less than we earn; that seems to be a very simple problem. Mr. Micawber, one of those happy creations of the genial Dickens, puts the case in a strong light when he says that to have annual income of twenty pounds per annum, and spend twenty pounds and sixpence, is to be the most miserable of men; whereas, to have an income of only twenty pounds, and spend but nineteen pounds and sixpence is to be the happiest of mortals.
Many of my readers may say, āwe understand this: this is economy, and we know economy is wealth; we know we canāt eat our cake and keep it also.ā Yet I beg to say that perhaps more cases of failure arise from mistakes on this point than almost any other. The fact is, many people think they understand economy when they really do not.
44. Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the passage? (A) Getting a job is easier now than it ever has been before.
(B) Earning money is much less difficult than managing it properly.
(C) Dr. Franklin advocated getting a job in a mill.
(D) Spending money is the greatest temptation in the world. (E) There is no way to predict changes in the economy.
45. What would this authorās attitude likely be to a person unable to find employment? (A) descriptive
(B) conciliatory
(C) ingenuous
(D) incredulous (E) exculpatory
46. According to the author, what is more difficult than making money? (A) getting a job
(B) traveling to a mill
(C) reading Dickens
(D) understanding the economy (E) managing money
47. Who is the most likely audience for this passage?
11
(A) economists (B) general readers (C) teachers
(D) philanthropists (E) children
48. What is the best definition of economy as it is used in this passage? (A) exchange of money, goods, and services
(B) delegation of household affairs
(C) efficient money management
(D) less expensive
(E) luxurious accommodations
49. Which word best describes the authorās attitude towards those who believe they understand money?
(A) supportive
(B) incriminating
(C) excessive (D) patronizing (E) incendiary
50. This passage is most likely taken from a(n) _____.Ā (A) selfhelp manual
(B) autobiography
(C) epistle
(D) novel (E) brochure
MATHEMATICS
Problemsolving: Solve these problems and indicate the best of the answer choices given. All numbers used are real numbers.
1. If a = 3 and b = 2, what is the value of a2 + 3ab ā b2? (A) 5
(B) 13
(C) 4
(D) 20 (E) 13
2. 34 is what percent of 80? (A) 34%
(B) 40%
(C) 42.5%
(D) 44.5% (E) 52%
3. Jack and Kevin play in a basketball game. If the ratio of points scored by Jack to points scored by Kevin is 4 to 3, which of the following could NOT be the total number of points scored by the two boys?
(A) 7
(B) 14
(C) 16
(D) 28
(E) 35
4. Factor the following expression: x2 + x ā 12 (A) (x ā 4) (x + 4)
(B) (x ā 2) (x + 6)
(C) (x + 6) (x ā 2)
(D) (x ā 4) (x + 3) (E) (x + 4) (x ā 3)
5. The average of six numbers is 4. If the average of two of those numbers is 2, what is the average of the other four numbers?
(A) 5
(B) 6
(C) 7 (D) 8 (E) 9
6. What is the nexthighest prime number after 67? (A) 68
(B) 69
(C) 71
2
(D) 73 (E) 76
7. Solve: 0.25 x 0.03 = (A) 75
(B) 0.075
(C) 0.75
(D) 0.0075 (E) 7.5
8. Deanās Department Store reduces the price of a $30 shirt by 20%, but later raises it again by 20% of the sale price. What is the final price of the shirt?
(A) $24.40
(B) $32
(C) $30 (D) $28.80 (E) $26.60
9. How many 3inch segments can a 4.5yard line be divided into? (A) 15
(B) 45
(C) 54
(D) 64 (E) 84
10. Sheila, Janice, and Karen, working together at the same rate, can complete a job in 3 1/3 days. Working at the same rate, how much of the job could Janice and Karen do in one day?
(A) 1/5
(B) 1/4 (C) 1/3 (D) 1/9 (E) 1/8
11. Dave can deliver four newspapers every minute. At this rate, how many newspapers can he deliver in 2 hours?
(A) 80
(B) 160
(C) 320 (D) 400 (E) 480
12. 46 Ć·28 = (A) 2
(B) 8
(C) 16
3
(D) 32 (E) 64
13. Ifa=4,b=3,andc=1,then a(bāc) = b(a+b+c)
(A) 4/13 (B) 1/3 (C) 1/4 (D) 1/6 (E) 2/7
14. What is 20% of 12 , expressed as a percentage? 5
(A) 48% (B) 65% (C) 72% (D) 76% (E) 84%
15. Archieās gas tank is 1/3 full. If Archie adds 3 gallons of gas to the tank, it will be 1ā2 full. What is the capacity in gallons of Archieās tank?
(A) 28
(B) 12
(C) 20 (D) 16 (E) 18
Data sufficiency: This Data Sufficiency problem consists of a question and two statements, labeled (1) and (2), in which certain data are given. You have to decide whether the data given in the statements are sufficient for answering the question, using only the data given in the statements and your knowledge of mathematics and everyday facts (such as the number of days in July or the meaning of counterclockwise).
16. Does Jonathan get paid more than Deborah? (1) Alice gets paid more than Deborah.
(2) Jonathan makes less money than Alice.
(A) Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) is not sufficient.
(B) Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) is not sufficient.
(C) BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.
(D) EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.
(E) Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.
17. Is the integer a less than the integer b? (1) a3 < b3
4
(2) a2 < b2
(A) Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) is not sufficient.
(B) Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) is not sufficient.
(C) BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.
(D) EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.
(E) Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.
18. Is the perimeter of a given rectangle greater than 8 inches?
(1) The two shorter sides of the rectangle are 2 inches long.
(2) The length of the rectangle is 2 inches greater than the width of the
(A) Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) is not sufficient.
(B) Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) is not sufficient.
(C) BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.
(D) EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.
(E) Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.
19. Is a an integer? (1) a > 0
(2)42 +32 =a2
(A) Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) is not sufficient.
(B) Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) is not sufficient.
(C) BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.
(D) EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.
(E) Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.
20. What is the value of the integer P? (1) P is an integer multiple of 2, 4, and 5. (2) 40 < P < 70
(A) Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) is not sufficient.
(B) Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) is not sufficient.
(C) BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.
(D) EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.
(E) Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.
21. Brian is dividing 50 marbles into 3 groups. How many marbles are in the largest of the three groups?
(1) The sum of the two smaller groups of marbles is equal to the largest group of marbles. (2) The smallest group contains 6 marbles.
5
(A) Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) is not sufficient.
(B) Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) is not sufficient.
(C) BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.
(D) EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.
(E) Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.
22. Is b a positive number? (1) 1,452(b) > 0
(2) āb < 0
(A) Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) is not sufficient.
(B) Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) is not sufficient.
(C) BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.
(D) EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.
(E) Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.
23. Is x greater than y? (1) x > 2y
(2) x ā y > 0
(A) Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) is not sufficient.
(B) Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) is not sufficient.
(C) BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.
(D) EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.
(E) Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.
24. What is the average test score of Angela, Barry, Carl, Dennis, and Edward? (1) The average of the test scores of Barry, Carl, and Edward is 87.
(2) The average of the test scores of Angela and Dennis is 84.
English Language Post UTME Syllabus
This is complete Post UTME Syllabus in English Language for candidates who are writing post utme exam this year in various universities. So, if you are preparing for post utme exam, itās important that you follow this syllabus while you are reading. Try as much as possible to cover it with text books andĀ post utme past questions.
(a). Introduction is Essay/ Composition
 Description of a composed text
(i) Unity of theme
(ii) Coherence
(iii) Cohesion
 Features of Composed text
(i) Focus
(ii) Organization
(iii) Support and elaboration
(iv) Style
(v) Conventions
 Writing a text
(i) Purpose of writing
(ii) Choosing a topic
(iii) Developing an outline
(iv) Paragraph development
(v)Ā Identifying characteristics of target audience
 Types of Essay/Composition
(a) Narrative Essay
(i)Ā Form(s)
 Relating personal or imaginative experience;
 Giving a historical account of a person, place, event etc.,
 Narrating a story to support a position
(proverb, philosophical view)
(ii) Features
Narration usually involves;
(i) Setting (place, time),
(ii) Characters (people, actors) (iii) Actions, (iv) Use of flashback, (v) Tense usage usually past tense.
(b)Ā Descriptive Essay
(i) Form(s)
Painting in words of persons, objects, scenes, event etc.
(ii) Features
 Emphasis more on showing rather than telling:
 There is always one dominant impression
 Selection of details to support dominant impression
 Reliance on concrete sensory details to Support points.
(c)Ā Expository Essay
(i) Form(s)
 Presentation, explanation or expounding of ideas, theories, beliefs;
 Presentation of a proposal on an issue, topic;
 Presentation of an analysis of something, event, issue;
 Presentation of commentary on an issue;
 Writing of an editorial
 Comparing and contrasting two things or event
(ii) Features
 Support ideas ordered logically and linked clearly;
 Use of a thesis (focus/controlling idea to establish control of content;
 Ideas receive adequate support to make them clear;
 Skilled use of language.
(d)Ā Argumentative Essay
(i) Form(s)
 Arguments on both sides of an issue (open)
 Arguments on one side of an issue (closed)
(ii) Features
 Logical presentation of ideas, viewpoints etc;
 Providing sufficient information to support or rebut a position,
 Careful selection of what to present;
 Anticipating counter arguments;
Grammar I
 The Sentence: Definitions using various criteria semantic, structure and orthography, with many examples of sentence.
 Structural Classification of Sentence: simple sentence, complex sentence, compound sentence, compound complex sentence, multiplecomplex sentence.
 Functional Classification of Sentence, namely: Statements, commands, questions and exclamations.
 Basic simple sentence and various sentence parts
 Explication of basic simple sentences
 Sentence part e.g., subject, verb, direct object, indirect object, and subject complement and object complement.
 Elements on the grammatical rank scale: sentence, clause, phrase/group, word and morpheme.
 Formation of nonsimple sentences, i.e. variants of the basic simple sentence, formed through the process of movement, deletion and insertion. e.g. negative sentence, passive sentence, polar question,Ā whĀ ā question etc.
 Formation of Nonsimple sentences combination of simple sentences or main clauses to form larger sentences e.g. compound sentence, complex sentence, compound complex sentence, multiplesentence and multiplecomplex sentence.
 Structural types of clauses…read more here
Mathematics Post UTME Syllabus
MATHEMATICS
Objectives
In recent times, the gap between the Secondary School Mathematics syllabus and First Year University mathematics has widened. This has led to very poor performance of students in their First Year Mathematics in the University.
The PreDegree Mathematics syllabus is designed to bridge this gap and to provide a solid basic foundation necessary for an average student to cope with First Year mathematics in the university.
The syllabus is specifically designed for students offering courses in the areas of Science, Social Sciences, Agriculture and Engineering.
It is hoped that a good coverage of the syllabus will remove the missing link and provide adequate prerequisite to the first year undergraduate university syllabus in mathematics.
COURSE OUTLINE
MTH 001 ā FUNDAMENTALS IN MATHEMATICS 1:
Numbers and Basic Arithmetic Operations Integer, real, rational and natural numbers. Number Bases Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division in different bases. (Bases 212). Conversion from one base to another. Fractions, Decimals and Approximations. Rates, Ratio and Proportions.
Factorisation of Polynomial Expression
Quadratic equations and Perfect Squares. Simultaneous equations in two and three unknowns. Elementary properties of quadratic functions. Functions of roots of quadratic equations. Factor and Remainder Theorems.
Polynomials. Variations and Inequalities. Sequences and Series Arithmetic and Geometric Progressions. Graphs of linear, quadratic and Cubic functions.
MTH 002 FUNDAMENTALS IN MATHEMATICS III
Euclidean Geometry Lines, triangles and polygons. Circles Arcs chords, segments. sectors of circles. Theorems on circles. Measuration Perimeter, Areas and Volumes of solid figures:
triangles, rectangles, circles. cylinder, cone. pyramid and prism. Coordinate Geometry; Rectangular and Cartesian coordinates; Mid Point, gradient, distance between two points, equations ofa line in the forms y = mx + c, ax + by + c = o. division of line internally and externally into ratios. Parallel and perpendicular lines. Basic Trigonometry; Sine, Cosine and tangent of an angle. Sine and Cosine formulae. Pythagoras Theorem.
Differentiation; Application of derivatives to rates of change, maxima and minima. Integration of algebraic, trigonometric and exponential functions. Application of integration to areas and volumes.
Introduction to Statistics and Probability;
Methods of collection and representation of data. Measures of location ā (Mean, median, mode) and measures of dispersion ā mean deviation, quartile deviation and standard deviation.
Probability ā addition and multiplication of conditional probability. Permutation and combination ā application to probability.
Physics Post UTME Syllabus
This is completeĀ Post UTME Syllabus in PhysicsĀ for candidates who are writing post utme exam this year in various universities. So, if you are preparing for post utme exam, itās important that you follow this syllabus while you are reading. Try as much as possible to cover it with text books andĀ post utme past questions.
 Mechanics
 (a) Fundamental and derived quantities and
units
 Position, distance and displacement
Distinction between distance and displacement
 Mass and Weight
Distinction between mass and weight
 Time and measurement of time
 Fluids at rest
(a) Volume, density and relative density
(b) Pressure in fluids
Concept and definition of pressure. Parcalās principle. application to hydraulic press and car brakes. Dependence of pressure on depth. Atmospheric pressure. Simple barometer.
(c) Equilibrium of bodies
(i) Principle of Archimedes
(ii) Law of Floatation
 Motion
(a) Types of motion: rectilinear. translational, rotational, circular.
(b) Relative motion.
(c) Frictional forces between two bodies (static and dynamic)
(d) Limitation of friction
(e) Viscosity
(f) Ā Circular motion
 Speed and Velocity
(a) Displacement
(b) Uniform and nonuniform speed and velocity
(c) Displacement time graph
 Rectilinear acceleration
(a) Uniform and nonuniform acceleration
(b) Velocity time graph
(c) Constant acceleration, gravitational acceleration
 Scalar and Vectors quantities
(a) Concept of scalar quantities
(b) Addition of vectors
(c) Resolution of vectors
 Equilibrium of forces
(a) Principles of moments
(b) Parallelogram law of forces, Triangle of forces
(c) Centre of gravity
 Simple harmonic motion
(a) Definition of simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) Simple pendulum, spiral spring
(b) Speed and acceleration of S.H.M
(c) Period, frequency and amplitude of S.H.M
(d) Energy of S.H.M
(e) Forced vibration and resource
 Newtonās law of motion
(a) First law of motion
Inertia of rest and motion
(b) Second law of motion
Force, Acceleration, Momentum and Impulse
(c)Ā Third law of motion
Action and reaction Linear momentum and its conservations. Collision of elastic bodies in a straight line. Recoil of a gun, jet and rocket propulsions.
 Energy
(a) Forms of energy (potential and kinetic, heat, chemical, electrical, light sound and nuclear).
(b) Conservation of energy.
 Work, Energy and Power
(a) Work as a measure of energy
(b) Energy as capacity to do work.
(c) Gravitation field
(d) Power as rate of doing work
(e) Machines: levers, pulleys, inclined plane
 Heat Energy
(a) Temperature and its measurement
(b) Effect of heat:
(i) Temperature rise
(ii) Change of State
(iii) Expansion. Change in resistance, linear.
area and volume expansion.
(c) Heat transfer conduction, convection and
radiation
(d)Ā Gas laws: Boyleās law, Charlesās Law
(e) Heat capacity, specific heat capacity, latent heat, melting and boiling point, specific latent, heat of fusion and vaporization. Evaporation and Boiling. Vapour pressure.
(f) Ā Humidity, relative humidity and dew point.
Weather and humidity.
 Waves
1(a) Production of waves: propagation of waves
(b) Speed, frequency and wavelength
(c) Wave form
(d) Relationship between frequency
(e) Wavelength (n), period (T) and velocity (V)...Read more Click Here
Chemistry Post UTME Syllabus
This is complete Post UTME Syllabus in Chemistry for candidates who are writing post utme exam this year in various universities. So, if you are preparing for post utme exam, itās important that you follow this syllabus while you are reading. Try as much as possible to cover it with text books andĀ post utme past questions.
Fundamental Concepts in Physical Chemistry
 Separation of Mixture and Purification or Chemical Substances
(a) Pure and impure substances. Melting and boiling points should be mentioned as criteria for purity of chemical substances. Elements, compounds and mixtures. Definition of (i) an element (ii) a compound should be known
(b) Production of a mixture by mixing sulphur powder and iron fillings in any proportion; Production of a compound e.g. FeS by mixing iron fillings and sulphur powder in the ratio 28:16 and later heating. Discussion of the differences between a mixture and a compound should be known.
(c) Separation processes: e.g. by evaporation, simple and fractional distillation, sublimation, filtration, crystallization, precipitation and chromatography.
See Also:Ā Post UTME Syllabus in English Language
 Atomic Structure. Periodic Table and Nuclear
Chemistry
(a) Short account of Daltonās atomic theory: Crookeās and JJ. Thompsonās experiment. Outline of Ratherfordās description of alpha particle scattering and deductions there from.
(b) Atomic number/proton number; number of neutrons: isotopes, atomic mass. Calculation of relative atomic mass from various isotopic masses. Relative atomic mass and relative molecular mass based on carbon 12 scale. Quantum Number, Electronic Energy Levels. Experimental evidence and interpretation of line spectra (quantitative treatment only). Arrangement of electrons in the main and subenergy levels; shapes of s and p ā orbitals only. Rules and principles of fillingin electrons ā Aufbau Principles, Hundās Rule of Maximum Multiplicity and Pauli Exclusion Principle. Abbreviated and detailed electronic configuration in terms of s, p and d orbitals from hydrogen to zinc. Mention should be made of the old system e.g. 2, 8, 1 for sodium.
Periodic Chemistry
Nuclear Chemistry
(i) Ā Ā Types of nature of radiations.
Distinction between ordinary reactions and nuclear reactions, Charges, relative mass and penetrating power of radiations. Balancing of simple nuclear equations.
(ii) Ā Halflife as a measure of stability of nucleus. Quantative treatment of halflife,
(iii) Nuclear reactions. Fission and Fusion in nuclear reactions. Natural and artificial radioactivity. Detection of radiation by GiegerMuler counter or cloud chamber. Generation of electricity; atomic bomb.
(iv) Effects and application of: Carbon dating, use of radioactivity in agriculture, medicine, industry and research. Periodicity of the elements: Periodic Law Trend in periodic properties down the group and across a period. Electronic configurations leading to group and periodic classifications. Periodic properties for the first 18 elements: atomic size, ionic size, ionization energy: electron affinity electronegativity.
See Also:Ā Post UTME Syllabus in Mathematics
 Bonding and Shapes of Molecules Combining power, electrovalency and covalency:
The electronic configuration of elements and their tendency to attain the noble gas structure. Electronic structure of molecules; bonding, metallic ā bonding and coordinate bonding. Vanderwallās forces. Hybridization of orbitals limited to Sp^{3}, Sp^{2}, and sp. Shapes of simple molecules: Linear (H_{2}, O_{2}Ā Cl_{2}. HCl and CO_{2}): pyramidal (NH_{3}); tetrahedral CH_{4}): angular (H_{2}O). Properties of compared with those of electrovalent compounds.
 Stoichiometrv and Chemical Reactions
(a) Symbols; Formulae and Equations. Calculations involving formulae and equations will be required Mass and volume relationships in chemical reactions and the stoichtomelry of such reactions as. (i) precipitation, (ii) evolution of gases (iii) displacement at metals (iv) formation of reciucaflon of metal oxides.
Empirical and molecular formulae, chemical equation
Law of chemical combination:
Law of conservation of mass:
Law of constant composition:
Law of multiple proportion
(b) Ā Amount of substance and mole ratios
(i) Mass and volume measurements;
(ii) The mole as a unit of measurement:
avogadro constant as the number of atoms in 12.00g of carbon 12:
(iii) Molar quantities and their uses:
(iv) Mole of electrons, atoms, moledules, formula units etc.
Use of mole ratios in determining stoichiometry of chemical reactions. Simple calculations to determine number of entities, amount of substance, mass, concentration, volume and other quantities.
 Kinetic Theory of Matter:
(a) Postulates in the kinetic theory of matter. Application of the theory to explain the:
(i) Ā Ā Ā Ā Ā Ā Ā Nature of solids, liquids and gases
(ii) Ā Ā Ā Ā Ā Ā Ā Changes of state of matter.
Change of state of magger should be explained in terms of movement of panicles. It should be emphasized that randomness creases (and orderliness increases) from gaseous state of liquid state to solid state.
(iii) Ā Ā Ā Ā Ā Ā Diffusion of gases. Diffusion should be associated with Grahamās Law. Ammonia and hydrochloric gases traveling at a meeting point should be used to explain (in terms of simple calculations) diffusion.
(b) Ā Ā Ā Ā Ā Ā The Gas Laws
Charles, Boyleās, Daltonās, Grahamās, Avogadroās Laws and the ideal gas equation. Qualitative explanation of each of the gas laws using the kinetic model Mathematical relations based on the laws. Molar volume of a gas = 22.4dm^{3}Ā at s.t.p. The general gas equation: Ā Ā = K
 Energy and Energy Changes
(a) Energy changes accompanying physical and chemical changes. Simple calculations involving chemical reactions. Dissolution of substance in/or reactions with water e.g. Na, NaOH, K, NH_{4}Cl, positive DH or energy absorbed for endothermic reactions. Negative DH or energy released for exothermic reactions. Simple calculations involving DH based on energy profile diagram will be required. Types of heat changes: Heat of combination, formation, dilution, reaction, neutralization etc: Hessās Law of constant heat, heat summation should be included.
(b) Entropy as orderdisorder phenomon. Simple illustrations like mixing of gases antidissolution of salt are required.
DG^{0}Ā = 0 as criterion for equilibrium
(c) Spontaneity of reaction
AGĀ° greater or less than zero as criteria for nonspontaneity and spontaneity respectively.
 Acids, Bases and Salts
(i)Ā Ā Definitions, general characteristics. preparation, and properties of acids, bases and salts. Arrhenius, Bronsied Lowry and Lewis concept of acids and bases.
(ii) Ā Acids, bases and salts as electrolytes. Weak and strong electrolytes. Evidence from conductivity and enthalpy of neutralization.
(iii) Hydrolysis of salts. Qualitative explanation of hydrolysis. Behavior of some salts (e.g. NH_{4}Cl, AICI_{3}Ā Na_{2}CO_{5}, NaHCO_{3}, CH_{3}COON_{4}) in water.
(iv) pH knowledge of pH scale, pH as a measure of acidity and alkalinity, ionic product of water, Simple calculation of pH
(v) Acidbase indicators. Indicators as week organics acids or bases. Colour of indicator at any pH depends on the relative amount of acid and basic forms.
(vi) Acidbase titrations; knowledge of how acidbase indicators work in titrations. Choice of indicators in acid base titrations, standard solutions, molar solutions, molarity / volume relationship in a closed system (i.e. M x V = constant). Primary standards. Calculations involved in acid/base titrations.
(vii)Ā Deliquescence, hydroscopy and effluorence. Water of crystallization.
 Oxidation and Reduction Reactions
(a)Ā Oxidation and reducation processes
Oxidation and reduction in terms of
(i) Ā Addition and removal of oxygen and hydrogen
(ii) Ā Loos and gain of electrons
(iii) Change in oxidation number/state
(b) Oxidation states
(i) Ā Fundamental definition of oxidation state
(ii) Ā Deduction of oxidation state of oxygen in O_{2}H_{2}O and H_{2}O_{2}
(iii) Deduction of oxidation state of elements in HCI
(c) Oxidising and reducing agents:
Definition of oxidizing and reducing agents in terms of:
(i)Ā Ā Addition and removal of oxygen and hydrogen
(ii) Ā Loss and gain of electrons
(iii) Test for oxidizing and reducing agents
(d) Redox equations:
Balancing redox equation by
(i) Ā Ion, electron or change in oxidation state method
(ii)Ā Ā Electronic half equation method
 Rates of Reactions and Chemical Equilibria
(a) Rate of a reaction
Give the definition of reaction rate
(i) Ā Factors affecting rates Physical state. concentration of reactants, temperature catalyst and medium. For gaseous systems, pressure may be used as concentration term. In studying the factors, the following example, amongst others can be used. The reaction between HCI and Na_{2}S_{2}O_{3}, HCI and marble in lump and in powdered forms; the decomposition of H_{2}O, or KClO in presence and absence of MnO_{2}.
(ii) Theory of reaction rates, collision theory and activation energy theory to be treated qualitatively only. Factor influencing collision (i.e. temperature and concentration). Effective collision; Ativation energy and enthalpy change. Qualitative treatment of Arrheniusā Law to be noted. Effect of Light on some reactions (e.g. halogenations of alkanes) to noted.
(b) Ā Ā Ā Ā Ā Ā Ā Chemical Equilibria
(i)Ā Ā General Principles: Reversible reactions; i.e. dynamic equilibrium. The equilibrium constant K must be treated qualitatively.
(ii) Ā Le Chateliers Principles: prediction of the effects of external influence of concentration, temperature and pressure changes on equilibrium system.
CHM 002 Chemistry II: Fundamental Concepts in Organic/Inorganic Chemistry.
 ORGANIC
 Introduction and nomenclature…read more Here
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